Which Bible?
 

A Look at the Texts that are used for the translations of the Bible.
Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaticus, Codex Alexandrius
                                                                      
The Majority Texts, The Masoretic Texts, The Textus Receptus, The Syriac Text.

When it comes to the Bible, how can we decide which version to choose? There are so many translations.
Some people say they can’t understand the old language of the King James Version and that the modern ones are a bit easier to read.
This is the dilemma of many Christians today. Which one can I trust?
Many opt for a Paraphrased version because it takes the “hard work” out of reading. Paraphrased versions are supposed to make things easier to
understand.

Is this correct or a fallacy?
Can the long standing King James Version be trusted? Or should we ditch it in favour of a more modern translation?

The Bible is God’s Word, it was written by men who were inspired of the Holy Spirit. It was written over a period of 1500 years by over 40 different writers, from varied backgrounds, time frames and locations and comparing scripture with scripture we find that it gels together like a jigsaw puzzle and God’s thumb print is all over it.

The Protestant Bible is compiled from 66 books, 39 in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament.

See Blog No 31
https://jeffreyunsworth.wixsite.com/teleiosbibleblogs/bibleandorigins

 

The whole Bible reveals God’s plan of salvation for mankind. The Old Testament is the New Testament concealed and the New Testament is the Old Testament revealed.

The Bible from beginning to end speaks of a Redeemer, a Saviour and this person is Jesus Christ.

John 5:39 Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.
John 5:46 For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me.

Galatians 3:24  Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.

It has been said that you can find Jesus Christ in one way or another, whether Type, Analogy, or Christophany, on every page of the Bible.

 

Jesus is the central theme of the Bible.
The Bible begins with Him and ends with Him.

The first word “beginning”, in the Bible is the Hebrew word “Barashyt”. (Bara) is the Son of Aleph, (God).

The Bible ends with Jesus Christ, He is the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.

Rev 22:13  I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

The very last verse in the Bible says:
Rev 22:21  The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen. 

Collossians 1:17 And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.

The Scriptures were given by God to reveal man’s fallen state and to reveal a Redeemer to the world.

The first five books of the Old Testament are collectively known as the “Torah” “The Law”, these were given to Israel through the Patriarch Moses. Then, after this came the Prophets, the Major Prophets and Minor Prophets.
Jesus, after His resurrection was found walking on the road to Emmaus, He told His two companions, that all the scriptures spoke of Himself.


Luke 24:27 And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
John 5:46 For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me.

John 1:17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.

Finally God revealed His Word to the Apostles and other disciples by revelation as a foundation for the church.
Jesus Christ is God’s Word incarnate. (Greek—Logos)


John 1:14  And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
 

God has finally spoken through His Son Jesus Christ. There is no more revelation. The Bible is the all sufficient Word of God.
 

Heb 1:1  God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, 
Heb 1:2  Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; 


So, the Bible is God’s Word and this Word is truth. Jesus said this:

John 17:17 Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth.

Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God is living and effective and sharper than any double-edged sword, penetrating as far as the separation of soul and spirit, joints and marrow. It is able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart.

So, which is the best translation and which can we trust?

One thing we do know, is that when it comes to translations into different languages, there are problems. Sometimes the true meaning of a word can be cloaked because there may not be a literal translation of a text.
Therefore it is imperative that the translators stick as close to the original text as they can.

One example of this is the word “love”. In Greek, the language of the New Testament, there are three different words, (Eros – Philo and Agape). Eros is the sexual love of a man for a woman. Philo is the love of a father to son, brother to brother or friend to friend and Agape is the pure love of God.
In the English we only have the one word for love. So if a son says he loves his mother it is not with an “Eros” love but a “Philo” love.
In English I may say “I love sweets” but I mean I like sweets a lot.

 

Same with Psalm 23. “He leads me in paths of righteousness”.

Literally in the Hebrew, the language of the Old Testament, it says, “He leads me in circles or cycles of righteousness”.

These are not wrong translations but a deeper understanding of the text can be found by looking at the original language.

So sometimes it is necessary to look at the original text to get the full understanding of a verse or word.

So which translation into English, is the nearest to the original texts?

There is much discussion on this subject and obviously when there is much discussion there arises differing opinions.
Let us look at the much loved and respected King James Version of the Bible.

 

Where did this translation come from?

Well, the text used for the Old Testament in the King James Version came from the Jerusalem texts known as the “Masoretic Texts” and the New Testament came from the Antioch texts known as the “Textus Receptus”.

The Masoretic Text is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism. It was primarily copied, edited and distributed by a group of Jews known as the Masoretes between the 7th and 10th centuries CE. The oldest extant manuscripts date from around the 9th century.
The Masoretic Text defines the Jewish canon and their precise letter-text, with their vocalization and accentuation known as the Masorah.
The Textus Receptus is the generally accepted text (The Majority Text) also known as the (Received Text).

Erasmus, a 15th-century Dutch theologian, published a New Testament in 1516, it contained lots of errors. A second edition was published in 1519 with some of the errors having been corrected.

Erasmus published two other editions in 1527 and 1535. Stung by criticism that his work contained numerous textual errors, he incorporated readings from the Greek New Testament published in Spain in later editions of his work.
Erasmus’ Greek text became the standard in the field, and other editors and printers continued the work after his death in 1536. In 1633, another edition was published. In the publisher’s preface, in Latin, we find these words: “Textum ergo habes, nunc ab omnibus receptum,” which can be translated as “the [reader] now has the text that is received by all.” From that publisher’s notation have come the words “Received Text.” The Textus Receptus became the dominant Greek text of the New Testament for the following two hundred and fifty years.

This is the accepted text by the majority of scholars, known as “The Majority Text” or “The received Text”.

The biblical Textus Receptus constituted the translation-base for the original German Luther Bible, the translation of the New Testament into English by William Tyndale and the New Testament in the King James Version, also known as the Authorized Version.
This King James Version of 1611, stood the test of time and throughout this period there were mighty revivals, especially in Great Britain and it was the adherence to this Word of God that promoted a society that generally was a God fearing nation. This was before the “age of reason” when the truth of God’s word was preached and believed and abided by.

The Age of Reason was an eighteenth-century movement which followed hard after the mysticism, religion, and superstition of the Middle Ages. The Age of Reason represented a genesis in the way man viewed himself, the pursuit of knowledge, and the universe. In this time period, man’s previously held concepts of conduct and thought, could now be challenged verbally and in written form; fears of being labelled a heretic or being burned at the stake were done away with. This was the beginning of an open society where individuals were free to pursue individual happiness and liberty.
This time was an introduction to new literature and new translations of the Bible that led to what we are experiencing in the churches today.
Liberalism—Mysticism—False Teaching and Apostasy.

From 1459 AD to the early 1800s the Bible was given to the common people  and for the first time, ordinary men could read the scriptures for himself. What happened was the evangelization of much of the World.
It was at this time that Darwinism came to the fore and the new translations of the Bible and what did this bring?
Evolution—Deism—Liberalism—Atheism, and eventually what we are seeing today, widespread unbelief and Apostasy.

It was not until the publication of the Westcott and Hort Greek New Testament in 1881 that the Textus Receptus lost its position.
The reason for its losing its prominent position as a basis of biblical textual interpretation was the inception of textual criticism. Influential scholars paved the way for the acceptance of a critical text. The work of Westcott and Hort brought about the final dethronement of the Textus Receptus and the establishment of the principle of a critical text.

A comment here on these two men:
Westcott’s and Hort’s non-orthodox spiritual beliefs. In truth, both men held to several ideas that modern conservative Christianity would consider heretical. 

“The Critical Text” is a Greek text of the New Testament that draws from a group of ancient Greek manuscripts and their variants in an attempt to preserve the most accurate wording possible..
Until the late 1800s, the Textus Receptus, or the “received text,” was the foremost Greek text from which the New Testament was derived. (The King James Version and New King James Version are based on the Textus Receptus.)

In 1881 two prominent scholars, Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton J. A. Hort, printed their New Testament in Greek, later known as the Critical Text.
Dismissing the Textus Receptus as an inferior text rife with errors, Westcott and Hort compiled a new Greek text, with special focus on two fourth-century manuscripts, the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus.
New translations began to emerge.

So, what are these two texts?

Codex Sinaiticus, was found in a garbage bin by Count Tischendorf in 1859 at the Monastery of St Catherine on Mount Sinai. Portions of the manuscript were found in the monastery dump, and a larger portion was presented to Tischendorf by one of the monks.
It is a large codex, with 400 pages (or leaves) comprising about half of the Old Testament in the Septuagint version (The Old Testament in Greek) and the full New Testament. It has been dated to the second half of the 4th century and has been highly valued by Bible scholars in their efforts to reconstruct the original biblical text.
Sinaiticus has heavily influenced the translation work of modern Bible versions.
Though it is considered by some scholars to represent an original form of the text, it is also recognized as the most heavily corrected early New Testament manuscript.

This makes one wonder why these were found in a garbage bin or the dump!

Codex Vaticanus was found in the Vatican library. It is comprised of 759 leaves and has almost all of the Old and New Testaments. It is not known when it arrived at the Vatican, but it was included in a catalogue listing in 1475, and it is dated to the middle of the 4th century. Vaticanus was first used as a source document by Erasmus in his work on the “Textus Receptus.”
Because he viewed the text of Vaticanus to be erratic, he seldom followed it when it differed from other Greek texts. 
This is the text that the Roman Catholic Bibles are translated from.

There are those that think that just because these texts are older texts, that they are the best.
Well, is this true?
The Textus Vaticanus and the Textus Sinaticus are between 400 to 600 years after Christ.
The Christians of Antioch spoke Syriac in Syria and the translators of the King James Version used The Syriac Texts along side the Textus Receptus when translating the Bible into English.
The Syriac Text is from 100 years after Christ. 

So, Which is the oldest?

Nestle-Aland text : Critical Texts
Nestle and later joined by Aland, compared the three most significant editions of the Greek New Testament from the 19th century (Tischendorf, Westcott/Hort, and Weymouth; the last mentioned was replaced by the edition of B. Weiss in 1901). 
Currently, the Nestle-Aland text (now in its twenty-eighth edition) is the critical text in common use, along with the Greek New Testament published by the United Bible Societies (UBS).

So the problem we have today is this.
Do we accept (The Masoretic & Textus Receptus, The Majority Texts), or do we accept the  critical texts ( Wescott & Hort – Tischendorf Codex Sinaticus - Codex Vaticanus – Codex Alexandrius).

There are scholars on both sides of the camp, those that favour the Majority Text and those that prefer Codex Vaticanus and Sinaticus.

There have been theories that the Codex Sinaticus is a copy of a Gnostic text.

Bill Cooper in the mid 1900th century, wrote a book called:
“The  Forging of Codex Sinaiticus”
The Sinaiticus Manuscript was allegedly a copy of a gnostic text made by Constantine Simonides in the 1830s, written on antique vellum as a gift to the Russian Tsar. Simonides wrote to the Guardian newspaper a number of times claiming authorship of the work. The translators of the 1881 Revised Standard Version which was based on the forgery were predictably unimpressed, and Simonides' reputation was done much harm. 

On 13 September 1862, in an article of The Guardian, Constantine Simonides claimed that he is the real author of the Codex Sinaiticus and that he wrote it in 1839. According to him it was "the one poor work of his youth". According to Simonides, he visited Sinai in 1852 and saw the codex.

Another article published SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 4, 2012
The truth about Constantine Simonides' claim to be the creator of Codex Sinaiticus Pt. 1.
For more information on this, see:

https://greatbiblehoax.blogspot.com/2012/11/the-truth-about-constantine-simonides.html

There is also a film An Adullam Films. 
Codex Sinaiticus, The Oldest Bible? Or A Modern Hoax? 
Presented by Christian J. Pinto.

"This is the ancestor of all the Bibles that everybody else has in the world," says Dr. Scot McKendrick, of the British Library in London. With its 23,000
corrections, textual critics use Sinaiticus (calling it the oldest Bible) to argue that the Scriptures cannot be the inspired word of God. But where did the manuscript actually come from?

Discovered at the base of what is called Mount Sinai in Egypt, this curious codex emerged in the year 1859, and would dramatically transform the field of Biblical scholarship. Because of Sinaiticus, the traditional Greek text used by the English Reformers would be questioned, and ultimately replaced, by Wescott and Hort in 1881. But were these events the conclusion of an honest discovery? Or were they contrived to undermine the truth?

In this two-CD Audio set, documentary filmmaker, Chris Pinto discusses his extensive research into the discovery of the Sinai codex, and the controversial claim of Greek paleographer, Constantine Simonides, that the manuscript was really a modern work that he created in 1840. Is it possible that he was telling the truth?


Whether or not these things are true, something definitely happened as a result of this Text being discovered.
Since this time there has been a flood of modern translations, based on both these Texts, Codex Sinaticus and Codex Vaticanus and doubt has been cast on the authenticity of the Majority Text (the Textus Receptus).
Has this got something to do with the end times deception and Apostsy of the church?

So we see that there are translations based on Codex Sinaticus and Codex Vaticanus and translations based on Majority Text (the Textus Receptus).

Which ones are which?

Obviously we recognise that any Paraphrased Version is based on an individual’s personal interpretation of whichever texts they use. These should be read in conjunction with a Bible.

Some translations, mostly the more modern translations are based on the Wescott & Hort – Tischendorf Codex Sinaticus - Codex Vaticanus – Codex Alexandrius.

Whereas, other translations are based on the received texts The Masoretic & Textus Receptus. (The Majority Texts)

There are also those that translate from mixed texts.

Below are a number of common bibles and the texts they are translated from.

 

The Living Bible : TLB Modern English Mixed Text 1971
American Standard Version (paraphrased version)

American Standard Version: ASV Modern English Mixed Text 1901(Masoretic Text, Westcott and Hort 1881 and Tregelles 1857)

The Message  : MSG Modern English 2002 ( Paraphrased version)

New International Version: NIV Modern English 1978 Mixed Text(Masoretic Text, Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament (based on Westcott-Hort, Weiss and Tischendorf, 1862).

New American Standard Bible: NASB Modern English 1971 Mixed Text(Masoretic Text, Nestle-Aland Text)

Revised Standard Version: RSV (ERV) Modern English 1952 Mixed Text (Masoretic Text, Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament.)

English Standard Version: ESV Modern English 2001 Mixed Text(Masoretic Text, Westcott-Hort, Weiss, Tischendorf Greek texts)

 

......................................................................................................................................................................................................

 

American King James Version:      AKJV           Modern English    1999 Revision of the King James Version. (Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus)

Geneva Bible: GEN           Early Modern English           1557 (New Testament) 1560 (complete Bible)     (Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus)

King James Version: AV or KJV         Early Modern English 1611(Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus)
Tyndale Bible 1526 NT, some (Erasmus manuscripts, and Bezae 1598 TR.)

King James II Version: KJ2 Modern English  1971 (Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus)

Modern King James Version: Modern English 1990 (Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus)

New English Bible: NEB Modern English 1970 (Masoretic Text, Greek New Testament)

New King James Version: NKJV Modern English 1982 (Masoretic Text (Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, 1983), Textus Receptus)
Quaker Bible: Modern English 1764 (Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus)

 and there are many many more.

Conclusion:


2 Timothy 4:3-4 For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears; 

4  And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables. 
 2 Peter 3:16 As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction. 

1 Timothy 4:1 Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; 
2  Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;

 

Jesus spoke of false teachers in the last days. Matt 24.
False teachers generally twist the words of scripture to preach a false message.
This began in Eden with the serpent (the Devil), questioning and twisting the Word of God.

Gen 3:1  Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? 

Gen 3:3  But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. 
Gen 3:4  And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: 


The first great lie. “Ye shall not surely die”

We are told in scripture of a great apostasy in the last days.

2Th 2:2  That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. 
2Th 2:3  Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; 

 

For 250 years the Majority Text and the Textus Receptus stood firm as the bases of the scriptures.
The King James Version stood out above all other translations and God blessed the nations because of it.

Something has happened to cause the falling away that is seen today in the Evangelical church.

Does a leopard change its spot’s? Does Satan change his tactics? Has he lost his subtlety?


Gen 3:1  Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? 
 

Is it possible that the Word of God is being attacked and twisted in these last days as a means of bringing about the Apostasy in the church?
I would never say, don’t read these other translations. I am not a King James only Christian, although, I have to admit, I do favour the KJV.

 

However I would say that we should be aware that it is possible to be drawn away by false or twisted scripture.
When scriptures are removed completely or put as a footnote, we should be aware.
There are 16 verses, not found in the NIV:

1) Matthew 17:21 KJV: Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting.

(2) Matthew 18:11 KJV: For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost.

(3) Matthew 23:14 KJV: Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.

(4) Mark 7:16 KJV: If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.

(5 & 6) Mark 9:44 & 9:46  KJV: Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. .. (Both verses identical to each other, and to 9:48, which is still in the main text)
(7) Mark 11:26 KJV: But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses.

(8) Mark 15:28 KJV: And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, "And he was numbered with the transgressors."

(9) Luke 17:36 KJV: Two men shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

(10) John 5:3–4 KJV: 3 . . . waiting for the moving of the water.

4 For an Angel went down at a certain season into the pool, and troubled the water: whosoever then first after the troubling of the water stepped in was made whole of whatsoever disease he had.
 

(Note: not only is verse 4 omitted, but also the tail end of verse 3.)
 

(12) Acts 15:34 KJV: Notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still.

(13) Acts 24:6–8 KJV: 6 Who also hath gone about to profane the Temple, whom we took, and would have judged according to our law.

7 But the chief captain, Lysias, came upon us, and with great violence took him away out of our hands,
8 Commanding his accusers to come unto thee, by examining of whom thyself mayest take knowledge of all these things, whereof we accuse him.

(Note above that not only is verse 7 omitted, but also the end of verse 6 and Acts 8:37 KJV: And Philip said, "If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest." And he [the Eunuch] answered and said, "I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God."

(14) "Acts 28:29 KJV: And when he had said these words, the Jews departed, and had great reasoning [arguing] among themselves.

(15) Romans 16:24 KJV: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

(16) First John 5:7-8 KJV: 7 For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the holy Ghost, and these three are one.

8 And there are three that bear witness in earth, ...


There have also been 300 Changes or removals in the NIV:
See:
https://www.jesus-is-savior.com/Bible/NIV/300_changes.htm


When scriptures are used to throw doubt on the Divinity and Deity of Jesus Christ and the person of the Holy Spirit, we should take notice.

We must constantly be on our guard against such things.
We must consult the whole council of God.
We must continue in emulating the early Berean’s of the Apostle Paul's day.


Acts 17:11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they  received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so.
 

May God preserve His true Word.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For Page Word Search. Click Ctrl + F
 
 Return to Blog List                                                                            Copyright 
©  Teleios Bible Blogs 2017                                                
 Comment on this  Blog             
 
(Please name the Blog)     
This site was designed with the
.com
website builder. Create your website today.
Start Now